There’s not much to say about color, fire and social issues, all rolled into one! They speak for themselves. In this case, it’s my take on the children at the Border. This is Bus to Glory. As you can see, I started with a flat piece of metal, sifted enamels on it, then added fire. After the piece was fired, I folded it at the areas I left without enamel.
Lisa Gohr Harman and I have both been accepted into the Enamels Guild North East show, Under Fire 2, to be held at the Kirkorian Gallery in Worcester, MA. Because we agreed that if we both got in, we'd both go to the opening, so we're going, along with a bunch of other intrepid people! (Worcester is seven hours by car from here, and we're all driving!) Lisa is the only artist showing two pieces; everyone else has one piece each in the show. She deserves this recognition; I'm proud to have been her mentor for her Wilson College MFA studies. Also, she has a new website, http://lisaharmanart.com/. (Lisa's Pasta Bowl and Stitched Bowl are below; my Devil's Table is below them.)
I've been invited to participate in two shows this Fall. The first, FaerieCon, in Hunt Valley, Maryland, is Friday through Sunday, November 9, 10 & 11. I'm working with several friends who are part of Syntron Studios; we're making lots of things that people might use and wear, whether they're faeries or not. The pieces are so much fun to make, and wear. Possibilities are endless! So far, I've collaborated on faerie wings for sculptures, a fascinator ring, and dangly earrings, made with feathers and sparkly things. I'm putting some working photos up with this post, and will add some as they're finished. Others have fantastic drawings, sculptures, wearables, scents and paper items. Photos (below) show works in progress cork tops, felt earrings, faerie wings, faeries, and their habitats.
The second show, Foothills Artists, which showcases artists in their studios in the Fairfield/Carroll Valley area, west of Gettysburg, is Saturday, November 17 and Sunday, November 18. This is the 12th Annual Studio Tour, and I'm honored to be to be one of four guest artists who have been invited to participate. I've been making new pieces in enamels, Precious Metal Clay and silver. Most of the photos below are representative of what's been done.
My Two-Day Enameling Workshop students were in the studio, where I was demonstrating what copper foil and torch-fired opaque enamels would do. Because of the nature of the process, even though there's an expected continuum, there's also the unknown. In this case, the tiny piece took on a life of its own, and the result was a surprise to all of us. When it cooled from the heat, I looked at it, and said, without thinking, "The Devil's Cup!" A day or so later, the The Devil's Table at the Family Values Restaurant had begun to come to life. This seemed to be the perfect "look" for how I was feeling about the continued mass shootings and the lack of response to them, with the exception of the marches led by students who had survived the latest at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida. That there was no clear response to the shootings by way of any serious debate on gun control was uppermost in my mind. The tallies on the Devil's Scorecard on the window in the restaurant continue to grow.
In the past six months, I moved out of the arts council studio and I've rearranged my home studio to accommodate up to three students in jewelry classes. It's really nice, with plenty of space to work, and use the three torches and the PMC kiln, which also works for enameling, and the other tools that are so necessary to a jewelry studio: roller mill, band saw, belt sander and buffer. The sinks make cleanup easy, and I still have room for my own work. My students are really great, and incredibly motivated, which makes the move very easy.
I made a piece, The Devil's Breakfast at the Family Values Restaurant, (above) which was photographed by Joseph Hyde in Baltimore (my go-to guy) and I've made applications to two venues. The first is the Enamel Guild North East, which is sponsoring a show in Worcester, MA. Lisa Harman went with me to have Joseph photograph some of her awesome pieces and applied for the same show. We agreed if we both get in, we'll take a road trip to Massachusetts! She's been such a great student/mentee. Her show in May at the arts council was terrific: a collection of all of her enamel pieces, paintings, and constructions as part of her requirements for her Masters from Wilson. I loved being her mentor: I'd show her a process and she'd run with it! Incredible. Plus, she's really nice.
So, whether I get into a show or not-- the second one is in St Louis, where I showed my Ladies in Purdah Tea Ring years ago-- I'm moving on to my next work, which might have something to do with the children from the border crossing fiasco at the Mexican/Texan border. My best work seems to be rooted in social comment, so I'll continue the journey.
The top photo is the overview of The Devil's Breakfast at the Family Values Restaurant. The small boxcar graffiti-- MARCH-- is one of three brooches inspired by the young people from Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida. The Names, below, are names of places and number of people killed there, and acts as the Devil's scorecard, scratched in the window of the restaurant.
All photos by Joseph Hyde
The first class at my new Studio 204 was a workshop on PMC with very talented participants. I’ve posted their beautiful work here and on Facebook. They set the bar high and I’m delighted.
The January class, Intro to Jewelry Making, has begun with basic sawing, filing and sanding. Sterling earrings should be finished shortly! A fibula—and early form of brooch, usually of wire will be next. They’re fun to make, and the possibilities are endless. The third project in the intro class is a forged bracelet, and the fourth project uses found objects and rivets.
On Wednesday, January 17, I'll have what I'm planning to be monthly Wednesday Workshops; this week it'll be Ear Wires, Catches, Jump Rings and Rivets, from 10am until 5-ish. All materials included for $50. 3 students.
A 4-week, Layers with Rivets project will follow, beginning on either Tuesday, February 13 or Thursday, February 15. This is a project I've been thinking about for a while: it's based on graffiti on boxcars, using metal, acrylic and other color-filled items. I think it’ll be fun. And that’s what it’s really about: fun. Fun learning new stuff, fun making things and fun meeting artists!
Food for thought: do graffiti artists hang out on railroad sidings and hope for a long side-track, or do they know where their cars are going, and try to catch up with them in a week or so? Or do they get their work finished in just the shortest amount of time? Do they work together?
Precious Metal Clay is amazing. It’s fine silver granules suspended in a clay-like binder that burns off when it’s fired at high temps. It’s easily manipulated, takes texture really well, and does things that are really difficult in regular fabricating. Three dimensional objects can be made and fired in a very short amount of time; for those of us (ahem) who might be a little short on patience, this is the perfect medium. It can be soldered and patinaed. Take a look at the pieces that I made with 20 grams of clay. I wanted to limit the amount to see how many pieces could be made with a small amount of the clay. Here are the results.
Beginning in January, I'll be offering lessons to people who would like to either learn about making jewelry -- or would like to improve their skills-- at Adams County Arts Council, 125 South Washington Street, Gettysburg, PA 17325. The three-hour classes are for one or two persons per class, and meet once a week, either an afternoon or an evening. The arts council studios are large, well-lit and easy to access.
Introductory class introduces the student to the tools and materials needed to make wearable art. Materials will include traditional metals, plastics, rubber, found objects and more. Findings such as S-hook catches and ear wires will be covered. Students should expect to work outside of class, that way making a piece of wearable art every week.
Intermediate class is designed for the student who has taken an intro class or is able to use basic hand and mechanized tools easily. The student in this class will build on skills learned in intro, and will learn to solder, make hollow forms and learn to make hinges for boxes and pendants. Findings such as a box clasp and toggles will be made as needed. Simple stone setting will be introduced.
Enameling class will be offered, with no previous metals experience necessary. Cloisonee pieces with transparent enamels, wall pieces using a variety of enamel techniques, and enamel paints on copper will be explored. All enameling will be done with a torch.
Advanced Fabrication will be offered as the classes progress, a class which will include difficult/advanced soldering, more hollow forms, stone setting as needed, will be some of the many options available.
Contact me via email or FaceBook Messenger for details.
This necklace was commissioned by Kaye Pyle, then a board member of Maternity Care
Coalition in Philadelphia. The necklace was auctioned at the MCC’s annual meeting in 2011 to help raise funds for their work.
The components of the necklace include references to museums, city scenes, art and
architecture and people in an afternoon in the City of Light. Singers Edith Piaf and
Jacques Brel, the Tour Eiffel, Metropolitaine, Notre Dame, designer Coco Chanel, a
1937 postcard of the Paris Exposition, a Fleur de Lis, Louboutin shoes, champagne
and wine, the Lady and the Unicorn at the Cluny, and Monet and Berthe Marisot at the Musee d’Orsay were the inspiration for the pieces.
Click to view PDF with more details and photos.
©2008 By Judith S. Pyle
The painting that would become known as “York Springs Graveyard” (Image 1: Cemetery Painting; Courtesy New York State Historical Association, Cooperstown, NY) was sold to Connecticut folk art collectors Jean and Howard Lipman in about 1939 by Joe Kindig, an antiques dealer from York, PA. The 18”x 24” oil painting on canvas, of mid-19th century people and carriages at a cemetery, complete with cattle in the middle distance, is signed “R. Fibich”. (Image 2: Detail, Cemetery Painting; Courtesy NYSHA, Cooperstown, NY)
The New York State Historical Association, Cooperstown, NY, subsequently acquired the painting from the Lipmans. It was cleaned, documented, studied and then exhibited at various venues including Primitives Gallery of Harry Stone (1942); Union College of Art Gallery, Schenectady (1951); Museum of Fine Arts of Houston, Texas (1956); M. Knoedler, NYC (1956); Roberson, Binghamton NY (1966-67); New York State Fair at Syracuse (1970); the DeCordova Museum, Lincoln, MA. (1972) ; The Whitney Museum, NYC (1974) and Smith College Museum of Art Collection (1975) . In addition to inclusion in The Flowering of American Folk Art, (1776-1976), which was published in conjunction with the 1974 Whitney Bi-centennial exhibit, it also appeared in American Primitive Painting, Metropolitan Miniature Series (1953) and in Life magazine, where readers were solicited for any information about the artist.
In The Flowering of American Folk Art (1776-1876), the index of artists’ biographies states
“R. Fibich (active c. 1850). Known for a single oil landscape of a York Springs, Pa., graveyard.”
Researching the Artist In the fall of 2007, this writer, a resident of Adams County, Pennsylvania, with childhood ties to York Springs and its surroundings, saw “York Springs Graveyard” in The Flowering of American Folk Art: 1776-1976 and began what would become extensive research on the painting and its maker.
At the encouragement of historian and 19th century photography expert, William A. Frassanito, the approximate date of the painting (c. 1850) was extended to the 1870’s, based on Frassanito’s assessment of the style of the women’s clothing in the painting. At the same time, another historian and fellow researcher, Debra Sandoe McCauslin, (Yellow Hill, For the Cause Productions, Gettysburg, PA, 2005) contacted the New York State Historical Association to see if additional information on the painting were available. The society responded with a packet of research, including the provenance and other information. One paper included the actual statement written on the back of the frame of the painting: “found in York Springs, Pa”.
Several trips to the cemetery in York Springs, known as Bonner’s or Sunnyside Cemetery, were made and photographs taken and compared to the painting. Upon close examination of the photos, (Image 3: York Springs Cemetery; Photo by Judith S. Pyle) several things became clear: 1) the mountains on the horizon at York Springs can hardly be seen; they are actually about 50 miles away at Thurmont, MD; what appears to be a mountain is actually Big Round Top, at Gettysburg Battlefield, about 10 miles distant; 2) Route 94, the Carlisle Road –see the flatbed tractor trailer—in the middle of the photograph can be plainly seen from Sunnyside Cemetery; it is not in the painting; and 3) an iron fence, not like any in the painting, surrounds one of two Bonner Monuments—but there are no other fences. Also, the cemetery roads are laid out at right angles to each other, with no curves, (Image 4; York Springs Cemetery Roads; photo by Judith S. Pyle), and the plots in the cemetery are rectangular. Therefore, using the expanded timeline to circa 1870, and the emphasis on the word “found” from the back of the painting, which broadened the scope of the search, this writer began an intensive search which has shed some light on the painting’s origins and its elusive maker.
Robert Fibich (1820-1878) and His FamilyRobert Fibich, (pronounced Fee- bick) born in Prussia about 1820, was living in Reading, Pennsylvania when he made application for United States citizenship in 1856. He gave his age as thirty-six. He is listed in the 1856-57 Reading City Directory as a “Painter”, and was living on the south side of Neversink Street below Bingaman Street. By May 1865, Fibich had moved to Tamaqua, PA, which is about 45 miles north of Reading, where he appears on an IRS Tax Assessment List; he was taxed $1.56 on his income. Although there was no evidence of Fibich in the 1860 census, he does appear in the 1870 US Census for Tamaqua (Middle Ward*), Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania:Robert Fibich, occupation Painter, was listed as age 50, born in Prussia. Living with him were his wife, Jane, 36, and their son, Edward, 14, both born in Pennsylvania. On the 1875 Tamaqua map (Schuylkill County 1875 Atlas, Pennsylvania; F.W. Beers & Co.), R. Feibich [sic] is listed as living on Pine Street between properties labeled as “Lewall” and “F. Lawall”. Robert Fibich died February 15, 1878, age 58. The cause of death is undetermined, but we can assume that it was unexpected, since it was his wife Jane who, upon his death, purchased a plot at the new Odd Fellows Cemetery in Tamaqua. The 1880 US Census for Tamaqua (East Ward*) on Rail Road Street shows Jane as a widow, living with her son, Edward, 24, who was also a painter, married to Kate, 21, born in Pennsylvania.
Although Jane’s existence past the date of her husband’s death might seem irrelevant at first, it may have some bearing on the subsequent provenance of the graveyard painting. To that end, the thread of census continues: the 1890 census is nonexistent, and the 1900 tally (US Census, Tamaqua, Middle Ward*) finds Edward, Kate, and their children Howard, Eddie, Lenorad [sic] Pearl and Guy, all with middle initial A, and eight-year-old Ella Morris on Pine Street. Jane, Robert’s widow, on the other hand, was now living in Greenwood Township, Perry County, PA, at the home of Isaac Staley, a widower, age 51. If Jane and Isaac were related, it is not stated.
Isaac Staley was the youngest of at least seven siblings. In 1870 he lived with his father and mother, Isaac and Prit, a number of siblings, and grandparents John and Ruth Staley. Elizabeth Cleckner, lived there as well. Isaac was 19 and still at home in 1880, and Mary Kleckner was listed as “Boarder-- niece”; “niece” is crossed out. Since there are no census records for 1890, only assumptions can be made about Isaac’s marriage and subsequent widowhood in the space of 20 years.
By the 1910 census, which includes street addresses, the household at 321 Pine Street in Tamaqua consisted of Edward, Katie, Howard A. Eddie, Guy and Pearl. By this time, Edward’s son, Lenard, and his wife, Berla, lived across the street at 316 Pine Street. In 1920, the family (the last name is spelled Febech now) was at the “old home place”: Edward, “painter” and Kate, their sons Howard, (according to neighbor Charles Kellner, Howard had a little convenience store on Pine Street at some point) painters Edward, Lenard (divorced), and Guy, with his wife, Anna. (Guy’s draft registration card of June 5, 1917 says he was born June 10, 1890, that he had a wife, lived at 321 Pine Street, and he was medium height and build, his eyes blue and hair light brown.) In the 1930 census, the house at 321 Pine Street was worth $10,000. (Image 5: 321 Pine Street in April, 2008; Photo by Judith S. Pyle) Living there were Edward Sr., with sons Howard, Edward, Lenard, Guy and his wife Anna. Edward Sr. died in 1943; his wife Kate had died on May 27, 1926. Howard, who died in 1947, was a Spanish American War veteran, and was buried in Soldier’s Circle at Odd Fellows. According to neighbor Charles Kellner, Anna Febich, who cared for her husband and in-laws, died penniless, on the “fifth floor” (apparently a euphemism for “insane and/or indigent”) at the state hospital in Coaldale.  Her name does not appear in the cemetery register for the Fibich lot, nor do those of her brother-in-law, Lenard or her husband, Guy. Since both she and Guy died in Coaldale, Schuylkill Co., perhaps they are buried there.
We don’t know if Jane Fibich, who died November 25, 1917, died in Perry County or if she had moved back to her son Edward’s home in Tamaqua by then. We do know, however, according to Odd Fellows records, that she is buried in the Fibich lot in Odd Fellows Cemetery in Tamaqua. Two babies, Myrtle and Roy (died in 1884 and 1888) are buried in the plot as well.
Odd Fellows Cemetery in Tamaqua, PAThe Odd Fellows Cemetery in Tamaqua (Image 6: Sign at the side entrance of Odd Fellows Cemetery; Photo by Judith S. Pyle) opened in 1865, welcoming all people. It was a planned garden cemetery covering thirty-one acres, with plots, concentric roads and paths radiating from the central Soldiers’ Circle. A 50’ marble pillar with an eagle on top was installed at the center of the Soldiers’ Circle in 1870.(Image 7: Soldiers’ Monument; Photo by Judith S. Pyle) The cemetery is situated on a hill facing east, overlooking the town, with the Little Schuylkill River running through the town. A range of mountains can be seen as well. The headstones of the oldest part of the cemetery face east, looking out over the valley below. Access to the area includes steps up from Rt. 209—a main artery in town—at the front, as well as a road leading around to the side of the cemetery from the same road. According to sextant Justin Bailey, iron fences surrounded the family plots at one time, but they were removed and melted down during World War II as part of the war effort. Today the plots are mown grass, with kneeling stones—round marble rolls at each end of a raised marble step, many of which are sunken to ground level—where gates into the plots would have been.
The Artist and the Cemetery
The Artist To establish that Robert Fibich is indeed the artist who painted “York Springs Graveyard”, two intertwining cases must be made. First, that Robert Fibich who lived in Tamaqua from the 1850’s until his death in 1878, is the artist, and second, that the Odd Fellows Cemetery, established in Tamaqua in 1865, is the cemetery in the painting.
Other than the R. Fibich discussed here, no other exists on any census that this researcher studied in Pennsylvania or any other state for the timeframe established. While the surname appears occasionally, the rest of the information doesn’t fit.
The signature that R. Fibich made on the painting, (see Image 2) although printed letters, holds a clear resemblance to the signatures (Image 8: Citizenship Application; Courtesy Schuylkill County Historical Society, Pottsville, PA) made by Robert Fibich on both the application for citizenship in 1856 and the grant of citizenship in 1863. Note that the letters are precise, measured and even; note, too, how the lower right tail of the R seems to be held in reserve, as opposed to swinging out away from the rest of the letter.
Finally, and this is the most difficult to prove, we must accept the premise that the skills and materials used by a house painter could, in conjunction with a unique creative urge, expand and translate to produce such a painting. Because this is the only painting attributed to Fibich, we have no body of work with which to compare it, to see how the artist’s style evolved over time.
The CemeteryThe Odd Fellows Cemetery is much changed since the time that Robert Fibich painted the view (Image 9: Odd Fellows Cemetery: April 2008; Photo by Judith S. Pyle); there are more headstones, more trees, more buildings and no cows, horses or carriages. Photos taken in the spring show the view without too many leaves, but the trees remain. However, the lay of the land is the same: there is a sharp drop down to the main street of town, there are hills, mountains, and there are curving roads in the cemetery. Note that the photograph of the main street shows bends in the road, mimicking the curves of the road in the painting. The few buildings in the painting are not easily identified, and may not be standing. While the Soldiers’ Monument is much larger than the monument to the left in the painting, the monument in the painting could be one of the numerous obelisks in the cemetery. Several of the converging roads match the pattern found in the painting. What has been thought to be a lamb in some research might be a kneeling stone instead, or a group of head stones.
Most telling, however, are the two fenced triangular plots in the painting. They aren’t visible in the cemetery now because the iron railings, as mentioned before, were removed as part of the war effort. However, when sextant Bailey was asked how so many coffins could fit in the space where there is only one headstone, (Image 10: Gravestone: Edward Febich and Kate H. Febich; Photo by Judith S. Pyle) he answered, “Well, first of all, the plot is triangular.” It was at that point that this researcher fully understood the importance of the seemingly insignificant iron-fenced triangles in the painting.
Unanswered Questions, Assumptions and Pure Speculation
The Nameplates on the Fences Of the two nameplates in the painting, only one can be read, and several variations of the spelling (Image 11: Cemetery Name Plate; Courtesy NYSHA, Cooperstown, NY) were explored: Stubl, Stuble, Stabler were some, but no one by any of those names was buried in Odd Fellows in Tamaqua or Baber in Pottsville; another variation, Stahler, yielded different results. Odd Fellows sextant Bailey confirmed that several Stahlers were buried near the Fibich lot: two children, an infant in 1875 and Elmer, 6 months, in 1876, as well as Israel and Aaron Stahler who died as adults. More research yielded the following: Israel Stahler was a son of Reuben and Catherine Stahler in West Penn Township, Schuylkill County in 1850. He was 17. By 1870, he and two brothers, Gideon and Charles, were living and working in Tamaqua, raising families.
Gideon and his wife Sarah had eight children and Charles had at least one child. Israel and his wife Fianah (also spelled Fian and Fiance) had two children who lived to adulthood: Harry E., born in 1861, and Aaron W., born in 1879. Israel, who died after the 1880 census, and Aaron are buried with Elmer and a 14 day-old daughter. If Fianah, who was living at 412 Oak Street in 1900, is buried there, it was not noted.
By 1910, Fianah had died, and her sons, Aaron and Harry, a laborer in the mines and a chair maker, respectively, were living with their distant relative-by-marriage – “Aunt” on the census record: Angeline Weaver and her family.
Robert Fibich could have been commissioned to paint the funeral of one of the Stahler babies, which he could have completed before his death in 1878. That would mean that the painting might have remained in the possession of the Stahler family. While Israel’s son Harry had moved to Reading, as indicated by his draft registration in 1918, Aaron continued to live with Angeline Weaver, through 1930. While neither Aaron nor Harry had heirs, the painting could have remained in Weaver’s household, which included her granddaughter, Helen Rhinehart Klingaman, a bank clerk, and wife of Howard Klingaman, who was working as a car inspector in 1930.
Misidentification of the Site of the Painting
A question that remains unanswered is the apparent misidentification of the site of the painting. It may never be known if antiques dealer Kindig actually “found” the painting in York Springs, Adams County, PA or if he purchased it somewhere else. In fact, it may also never be known if he or someone else wrote the notation “found in York Springs” on the painting.
Further, it seemed serendipitous that the cemetery at York Springs has a large monument and is situated on a hill. However, it has been this writer’s experience that there are many cemeteries with large monuments situated on hills, and, at first glance, any one of them could have been the subject of the painting. Only by careful deduction can it be determined that Odd Fellows Cemetery at Tamaqua alone meets all the criteria of the painting, including the direct connection to the artist.
ConclusionThis researcher believes that the maker of the painting known as “York Springs
Graveyard” is Robert Fibich, born in Prussia in 1820 and died in Tamaqua, Pennsylvania in 1878. He lived and worked there for about twenty-five years; long enough to see the cemetery in its earliest planning stages through the placement of the Soldiers’ Monument in 1870. We don’t know if he painted the view he hoped to have after his death, if the subject simply appealed to him aesthetically, or if he were commissioned to make the painting. While we may speculate about the reason for the painting, the site of the painting is clear: the mountains, the hills and the road leading through the settlement to the base of the hill of Odd Fellows Cemetery all fit the painting, as do the roads in the cemetery. The most compelling pieces of evidence, however, are those triangular plots, which are not found anywhere else in the area.
Of course, the overarching question remains: if “Found in York Springs” is Kindig’s notation, and it is correct, how did the painting get from Tamaqua to York Springs, a distance of just over 100 miles? For the time being, we can only guess at the answer. Hopefully, as more records become accessible, research may provide the answer. This writer hopes that this paper provides what might be a first chapter in the search for answers about Robert Fibich and his work. Until that time, there are always opportunities to pore over old newspapers, on the off chance that a 1930’s auction notice lists an old painting of a country cemetery.
To Debra Sandoe McCauslin for calling me in for an opinion on an unrelated painting and subsequently contacting New York State Historical Society at Cooperstown for painting records and research on the York Springs Cemetery painting; to historian William A. Frassanito, for strong encouragement to look at later than 1850 records and for advice and editing; to Timothy Smith, Assistant Director for Research at Adams County Historical Society, Gettysburg, PA, for advice and help with research; to Dr. Peter Yasenchak and the staff at Schuylkill County Historical Society for their help with research; to Barbara Brophy and the staff at the library at the Berks County Historical Society for their help with research; to Nancy Buelher, research director at Baber Cemetery in Pottsville for her patient responses to my emailed queries; to Justin Bailey for meeting me more than once to explain cemetery records and to walk over the Fibich area at Odd Fellows; to Tamaqua residents Jody Kellner, her father Charles Kellner and Wayne Freudenburger for making the family who lived at 321 Pine Street come alive; and finally, to Robert L. Bittick and William A. Bixler, who took time from their busy lives to tirelessly edit this article.
 Research documents and provenance, New York State Historical Association, Cooperstown, NY
 Lipman, Jean and Winchester, Alice. The Flowering of American Folk Art: 1776-1976. The Viking Press, New York, NY, 1974.
 Frassanito, who earned his master’s degree at the Cooperstown Graduate Programs in 1969, is the author of several books on Civil War photography, including Gettysburg: A Journey in Time, Charles Scribner’s Sons/ New York, 1975.
 Research documents and provenance, New York State Historical Association, Cooperstown, NY
 United States Citizenship Application, courtesy Schuylkill County Historical Society, Pottsville, PA.
 Reading City Directory 1856-57, J. Knabb—Journal Office. Courtesy of the Reading Historical Society; Reading, PA.
 U.S. IRS Tax Assessment Lists, 1862-1918, District 10; Annual Lists; May 1865
 US Census 1870, Tamaqua, East Ward, Schuylkill Co., PA
 Odd Fellows Cemetery records, Tamaqua, PA; courtesy of Justin Bailey, sextant for the cemetery
 US Census 1880, Tamaqua (middle ward), Schuylkill Co., PA
* East Ward and Middle Ward seem to be interchangeable terms/locations.
 US Census 1900, Tamaqua, District 199, Schuylkill Co., PA
 US Census 1870, Greenwood Township, Perry Co., PA
 US Census 1880, Greenwood Township, Perry Co., PA
 US Census 1910, Tamaqua, District 99, Schuylkill Co., PA
 Kellner, Charles, present owner of the Fibich home at 321 Pine Street; interview April 22, 2008
 Amazon.com: World War I Draft Registration: 1917-1918
 US Census 1930, Tamaqua, Middle Ward, Schuylkill Co., PA
 Kellner interview
 Social Security Death Index, Master File; Social Security Administration.
 Justin Bailey, sextant, Odd Fellows Cemetery; interview, April 22, 2008
 Schuylkill County Historical Society; copies from Schuylkill County Naturalization Records, Schuylkill County Court House, Pottsville, PA
 William A. Frassanito: suggestion for looking at tombstones, Fall of 2007
 Justin Bailey, sextant, Odd Fellows Cemetery, Tamaqua, PA
 Nancy Buelher, Research Director, Baber Cemetery, Pottsville, PA
 Justin Bailey, sextant, Odd Fellows Cemetery; interview, April 22, 2008
 US Census, 1870: West Penn Township, Schuylkill County, PA
 US Census, 1880: Tamaqua, Schuylkill County, PA
 Bailey conversation.
 US Census, 1890: Tamaqua, Schuylkill County, PA
 US Census, 1930: Tamaqua, Schuylkill County, PA
 Author’s note: upon asking the research director Nancy Buelher at Baber Cemetery in Pottsville, PA, which could have been a likely alternative to Odd Fellows Cemetery, the researcher stated, “No triangular plots at CBC!”